Let $V = \mathbb{C}^n$ where $n$ is sufficiently large. This paper by Melanie de Boeck and Rowena Paget determines the constituents of $S^\lambda (\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$ when $\lambda$ has either two rows, or two columns or is a hook partition of the form $(k-r,1^r)$. Since $S^\mu (V)$ appears in $S^\lambda (\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$ if and only if $S^{\mu'}$ appears in $S^\lambda (\bigwedge^2V)$, these results apply to the question.

Explicit positive formulae are given for the multiplicities of irreducible consituents of $S^{(k-1,1)}(\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$, $S^{(2,1^{k-2})}(\mathrm{Sym}^2V)$, $S^{(k-2,2)}(\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$ and $S^{(k-2,1^2)}(\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$. These results give a complete answer to the question in three new cases.

For example, Corollary 3.2 states that if $\mu$ is a partition of $2k$ then $S^\mu V$ appears in $S^{(k-1,1)}(\mathrm{Sym}^2 V)$ if and only if either $\mu$ has only even parts, or $\mu$ has exactly two odd parts of distinct sizes. In the latter case the multiplicity is $1$, in the former case the multiplicity is one less than the number of distinct part sizes of $\mu$.

**Edit.** Say that $S^\lambda(V)$ is a *minimal constituent* of a polynomial $\mathrm{GL}(V)$-module $W$ if $S^\lambda(V)$ appears in $W$ and $\lambda$ is minimal with this property. Define *maximal constituent* analogously. Let $m \in \mathbb{N}$. This paper by Rowena Paget and me characterizes, in terms of certain tuples of families of $m$-subsets of $\mathbb{N}$, all partitions $\mu$ such that $S^\mu$ is a minimal constituent of $S^\lambda(\mathrm{Sym}^m(V))$.
There is an analogous characterization of the maximal constituents of $S^\lambda(\mathrm{Sym}^m(V))$ by replacing sets with multisets.

To give a very small example, the minimal constituent $S^{(4,3,1)}(V)$ of $S^{(1^4)}({\mathrm{Sym}^2(V)})$ corresponds to the family of $2$-sets $\bigl\{ \{1,2\}, \{1,3\}, \{2,3\}, \{1,4\} \bigr\}$ of multidegree $(4,3,1)' = (3,2,2,1)$.

These results give a practical sufficient condition on a partition $\nu$ for $S^\nu(V)$ to have multiplicity zero in $S^\lambda(\mathrm{Sym}^2(V))$, so are also relevant to the question.