Much of the literature in characteristic 0 is older and may not immediately fit the exact format of your question. But here is a sample:
N. Jacobson's 1962 book Lie Algebras (later reprinted by Dover) discusses in II.5 (and II.11) the Lie algebra structure of a completely reducible linear Lie algebra in characteristic 0. His Theorem 8 shows that the Lie algebra decomposes into its center plus a semisimple ideal. (In the parallel algebraic group setting, the Lie algebra of a completely reducible linear algebraic group in characteristic 0 has this form.) The semisimple or just simple case is really the crucial one for Jacobson-Morozov theory.
In the 1968-69 IAS seminar volume published as Springer LN 131 in 1970, look at section III.4 in Conjugacy classes by T.A. Springer and R. Steinberg; here there are also adaptations to prime characteristic.
R.W. Carter's 1985 book Finite Groups of Lie Type (Chapter 5) has a nice treatment, though he usually works with simple algebraic groups.
There is also a Lie algebra treatment in section 11 of Bourbaki's Chap. 8 in the Lie groups series, supplemented by interesting exercises.
In characteristic 0 the exponential map works well to pass from the Lie algebra to the group, but in characteristic
$p$ the Jacobson-Morozov argument only works for large enough
$p$. For refinements involving the groups when
$p$ is small, there are substantial papers by G. McNinch and D. Testerman in the
past decade or so. At any rate, the case
$n=0$ of your question
is trivial and can be left aside.
As BCnrd observes, you have to be careful to specify your maps to be algebraic
group homomorphisms. In characteristic 0, working with an algebraically closed field isn't so important, but in general you have to treat points of the group over a field with care. (There is a careful study by Borel and Tits of the way abstract group homomorphisms relate to algebraic group morphisms, but you don't want to get into that here.)