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Dear all

While studying the overlap distribution for two random Cantor sets (long story made short), I came across the following problem.

$G(k)$ is a complex valued function, and satisfy the following condition:

$G(k\mu) = G(k)^2+ \beta$

with $\beta,\mu$ constant (in my case $\beta=\frac{2}{9}, \mu = \frac{4}{3}$)

Is there a way to find the functional form of $G(k)$ which satisfy the condition?

Note that for $\beta = 0$, $G(k)=\exp\left(a k^{\log_\mu 2}\right)$, ($a$ konstant) will satisfy the condition (easily verified), but I have no idea on how to find a solution for non-zero $\beta$. I'm a not a math student (I'm studying physics), but I have never seen problems like this before. Is there a way to find analytical expression for $G(k)$? Possible as an expansion?

I can generate a function which has this property on the computer. Writing $G(k)= x(k) + i y(k)$, with $x(k)=x(-k)$ and $y(k)=-y(-k)$ the function should look something like this:

-- jon

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The latex notation does not seem to show properly in Firefox. I don't know the reason. Hope the question is clear. – jonalm Mar 24 '10 at 12:03
It looks good to me in Firefox 3.5.8 on the Mac. What is the problem you see? – Harald Hanche-Olsen Mar 24 '10 at 12:31
@Harald: I use Firefox 3.6.2 on Mac. It show like this: – jonalm Mar 24 '10 at 13:20
Hit the "reprocess math" button on the right sidebar. – JBL Mar 24 '10 at 13:26
Got it. Thanks. – jonalm Mar 24 '10 at 13:30
up vote 3 down vote accepted

You do not give any smoothness requirement; I will look for an analytic $G$: $$ G(k)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nk^n.$$ In what follows, I assume also that $\mu=4/3$ and $\beta=2/9$. Expanding in a power series both sides of the equation and equating coefficients, we get that $a_0=1/3$ or $a_0=2/3$. In the first case we obtain the constant solution $G(k)=1/3$. But in the second case, we find a one parameter family of (formal) solutions, parametrized by the value of $a_1$: $$ a_0=\frac23,\quad a_1\in\mathbb{C},\quad a_n=\frac{1}{\mu^n-\mu}\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}a_ia_{n-i},\quad n>2. $$ For $a_1=0$ we obtain the constant solution $G(k)=2/3$. For other values of $a_1$, one should check that the series has a positive radius of convergence.

Another way of obtainig solutions is the following. Choose an arbitrary function $h\colon[1,\mu]\to\mathbb{C}$, and define $G(k)=h(k)$ if $1\le k<\mu$; for $\mu\le k<\mu^2$, let $G(k)=G(k/\mu)^2+\beta$; iterate this procedure to define $G$ on $[1,\infty)$. Now, for $1/\mu\le k<1$, let $G(k)=\pm\sqrt{G(\mu k)^2-\beta}$; iterate the procedure to define $G$ on $(0,1)$. Conditions can be impposed on the arbitrary function $h$ to make $G$ continuous, for instance ($G(\mu)=G(1)^2+\beta$).

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Thank you so much Julián. But this solution raise another question for me. You see that G(k)= $\tilde F(k)$ is the Fourier transform of F(x). And I want find an expression of F(x), but every term in the inverse Fourier transformation (from the series expansion) seem to diverge. Is it a way to tackle this problem? Assume $a_1= const.i$ as this will make F(x) a real function. – jonalm Mar 27 '10 at 13:44

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