More specificaly, is there a haussdorf nondiscrete topology on $\mathbb{Z}$ that makes it a topological group with the usual addition operation?

Yes. Take, for example, the subgroups $p^k\mathbb{Z}$, for $k>0$ and a fixed prime $p$, as a basis of neighborhoods of the identity. 


There is a topology on $\mathbb Z$ which has the set of all arithmetic sequences as a basis. It shows up in the topological proof of the infinitude of primes, cf. [H. Fürstenberg, On the Infinitude of Primes, Amer. Math. Monthly 62 (1955), 353] 

