In other words, given a segment in the hyperbolic plane is there a straightedge and compass construction of a segment incommensurable with it? In the Euclidean plane one can take the diagonal of the square built on the segment, as Pythagoreans discovered. However, equivalence of this incommensurability and irrationality of $\sqrt{2}$ relies on the Euclidean Pythagorean theorem. Pythagoreans originally believed that any two segments have a common measure, how hard would it have been for them to discover their mistake if we happened to live in a hyperbolic space?

The "straightedge" of course has to be hyperbolic. More precisely, a construction can use all Hilbert's axioms of the hyperbolic plane (including the axiom of Archimedes) except the Cantor's axiom of continuity. Equivalently, the question asks if there is a pair of incommensurable segments in every subset of the hyperbolic plane closed under straightedge and compass constructions, but not necessarily metrically complete.

This may not be as easy as it looks. There are no squares in the hyperbolic plane, and the hypotenuse of an equilateral right triangle can be commensurable with its leg. In fact, it follows from the hyperbolic Pythagorean theorem that any number in $(\sqrt{2},2)$ can be the hypotenuse/leg ratio depending on the size of the triangle. If the ratio is rational for the given segment the Pythagorean construction won't work. One could try doubling/halving the segment multiple times and then taking hypotenuses on various concatenations, but it is conceivable that all of them remain commensurable since there do exist non-rational analytic functions that map rationals into rationals. Perhaps there is a construction more taylored to the hyperbolic plane. But standard constructions of hyperbolic parallels, and therefore of ideal triangles, do use the axiom of continuity.