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The first time I heard of prime numbers, they were defined as natural numbers $n$ that can only be divided by 1 and themselves without remainder; later, when prime factorization was introduced, I learned that (in order to make prime factorization unique) 1 is not considered to be prime, making 2 the first prime.

## Questions:

When and by whom was the characterization of primes as natural numbers that are only divisible by 1 and by themselves without remainder, given?

When and by whom was 1 deprived its prime status?

Does a definition of primes exist that rules out 1, and that does not refer to prime factorization or its uniqueness? (Would “a natural number is a prime number if it is only divisible by 1 and by itself and if it doesn’t divide bigger prime numbers” be acceptable?)