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The following identity on MATH.SE

$$\int_0^{1}\arctan\left(\frac{\mathrm{arctanh}\ x-\arctan{x}}{\pi+\mathrm{arctanh}\ x-\arctan{x}}\right)\frac{dx}{x}=\frac{\pi}{8}\log\frac{\pi^2}{8}$$

seems to be very difficult to prove.

Question: I worked on this identity for several days without any success. Is there any clue how to prove this integral identity?

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13  
I'm waiting for Noam Elkies's solution :-) –  Suvrit Jan 18 at 19:20
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A related problem can be found here. –  Lucian Jan 21 at 15:08
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What happens if $\pi$ in the integral is replaced by some other real number? Can one give a closed-form formula for the integral in this case? –  Zurab Silagadze Jan 23 at 5:32
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Where does this problem come from and why do you care about it? –  Lev Borisov Jan 24 at 3:46
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@LevBorisov: This identity is a long-lasting problem(which was raised by another user) on Math.SE, and I think it is just the type of identity which may appear in Ramanujan's notebooks. Although I don't know what this identity may related to, it would be better to draw more attention to this elegent identity. –  zy_ Jan 28 at 12:15

1 Answer 1

up vote 50 down vote accepted
+150

I have proved this equality by means of Cauchy’s Theorem applied to an adequate function. Since my solution is too long to post it here, I posted it in arXiv, you can get it at http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.3830

The function $$G(z)=\frac{\log(1+(1+i)\,f(z)\,)}z$$ where $$f(x)=\frac{\operatorname{arctanh}(x)-\arctan(x)}{\pi}$$ extended analytically.

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That's great. I suggest that you at least copy the definitions of the key functions $f(z)$ and $G(z)$ into your answer. –  Neil Strickland Feb 18 at 8:57
    
@larry, I would like to know how this question was generated. I have seen so much structure in your integrand that I will be surprised if there is not something hidden. –  juan Feb 18 at 9:49
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Nice observation! Thanks for your answer to this identity! –  zy_ Feb 19 at 14:42
    
Thank you for the fantastic contribution. –  rlgordonma Feb 19 at 14:55
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Awesome answer! --- it's more than just an observation, I'd say :-) –  Suvrit Feb 19 at 16:32

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