If the density is bounded by a constant $C$ then I think the rate of convergence can be bounded as $\exp(-\delta t /C^2)$ for some fixed constant $\delta >0$. If the density is unbounded then I don't think there needs to be a uniform version of exponential convergence.

To elaborate on this, I will use my answer to the related question Error term for renewal function by Johan Wastlund.
From the work there, we find that for any $c>0$
$$
m(t) = \frac{1}{2\pi i} \int_{c-i\infty}^{c+i\infty} \frac{e^{st}}{s(1-{\Bbb E}(e^{-sX}))}ds.
$$
There is a double pole at $s=0$ and its residue is $t/{\Bbb E}(X) + {\Bbb E}(X^2)/(2{\Bbb E}(X)^2)$. Clearly all the other zeros lie in the half-plane Re$(s)<0$ . To show that there is a uniform exponential rate of convergence, we need to show that there is a half-plane $\text{Re}(s) < -\delta/C^2$ which is free of zeros of $1-{\Bbb E}(e^{-sX})$ (apart from the trivial zero at $s=0$).

First note that ${\Bbb E}(e^{-sX})= 1- s {\Bbb E}(X) + O(|s|^2 {\Bbb E}(X^2))$ from which it follows that there is some neighborhood $|s| <\delta$ which is has no zeros except for $s=0$.

Now suppose that $s=-x+iy$ is a zero, and we want a lower bound for $x$. We may assume that $|y| \ge \delta/2$. Let $f$ be the density function for the random variable $X$. Then we know that
$$
\int_0^1 f(u) e^{ux} \cos(uy) du = \int_0^1 f(u) du.
$$
Rearranging this means that
$$
\int_0^1 f(u) (1-\cos(uy))du \le \int_0^1 f(u) (e^{ux}-1) du \le (e^x-1).
$$
Now we get a lower bound on the left hand side, which will finish the proof. Since $y$ is bounded away from zero, if $\epsilon$ is small enough then the set of $u$ with $(1-\cos(uy))<\epsilon$ is bounded by some constant times $\sqrt{\epsilon}$. Therefore, since $f(u)\le C$,
$$
\int_0^1 f(u) (1-\cos(uy)) du \ge \epsilon - \epsilon \int_{u:(1-\cos (uy))\le \epsilon} f(u) du \ge \epsilon (1- KC\sqrt{\epsilon}),
$$
for some constant $K$. Thus taking $\epsilon = \delta/C^2$ for a suitably small $\delta$,
we obtain that
$$
(e^x-1) \ge \delta/C^2,
$$
for some $\delta >0$. (In this write up, $\delta$ just denotes some positive constant which may change from line to line.) This completes the proof.

If the density is not bounded, then one can arrange for zeros to get arbitrarily close to the line $\text{Re }(s)=0$, and therefore there would be no uniform rate of exponential decay.