Consider a manifold and a complex where cochains are sections of vector bundles and coboundary maps are differential operators, which are locally exact except in lowest degree (think de Rham complex). I'd like to know the relationship between the cohomology of this complex and the cohomology of the *formal adjoint* complex with compact supports (for the de Rham complex, this is again the de Rham complex, but with compact supports, and the relationship is given by Poincaré duality).

**Update:** Just added a bounty to raise the question's profile. The biggest obstacle, as came out of the discussion on an unsuccessful previous answer, to a straightforward application of Verdier duality is that it's hard to see how to connect the dual sheaf $\mathcal{V}^\vee$ with the sections of the dual density vector bundles $\Gamma(\tilde{V}^{\bullet*})$. The basic construction of $\mathcal{V}^\vee$ requires, for an open $U\subset M$, the assignment $U\mapsto \mathrm{Hom}_\mathbb{Z}(\Gamma(U,V^\bullet),\mathbb{Z})$, where $\mathrm{Hom}_\mathbb{Z}$ is taken in the category of abelian groups, which is MUCH bigger than $\Gamma(U,V^{\bullet*})$ itself.

Let me be more explicit, which unfortunately requires some notation. Let $M$ be the manifold, $V^i\to M$ be the vector bundles (non-zero for only finitely many $i$) and $d^i \colon \Gamma(V^i) \to \Gamma(V^{i+1})$ be the coboundary maps. Then $H^i(\Gamma(V^\bullet),d^\bullet) = \ker d^i/\operatorname{im} d_{i-1}$. By local exactness I mean that for every point $x\in M$ there exists an open neighborhood $U_x$ such that $H^i(\Gamma(V^\bullet|_{U_x}), d^\bullet) = 0$ for all except the smallest non-trivial $i$. Now, for each vector bundle $V\to M$, I can define a densitized dual bundle $\tilde{V}^* = V^*\otimes_M \Lambda^{\dim M} T^*M$, which is just the dual bundle $V^*$ tensored with the bundle of volume forms (aka densities). For any differential operator $d\colon \Gamma(V) \to \Gamma(W)$ between vector bundles $V$ and $W$ over $M$, I can define its formal adjoint $d^*\colon \Gamma(\tilde{W}^*) \to \Gamma(\tilde{V}^*)$, locally, by using integration by parts in local coordinates or, globally, by requiring that there exist a bidifferential operator $g$ such that $w\cdot d[v] - d^*[w]\cdot v = \mathrm{d} g[w,v]$. Thus, the formal adjoint complex is defined by the coboundary maps $d^{i*}\colon \Gamma(\tilde{V}^{(i+1)*}) \to \Gamma(\tilde{V}^{i*})$.

There is a natural, non-degenerate, bilinear pairing $\langle u, v \rangle = \int_M u\cdot v$ for $v\in \Gamma(V)$ and $u\in \Gamma_c(\tilde{V}^*)$, where subcript $c$ refers to compactly supported sections. Because $\langle u^{i+1}, d^i v^i \rangle = \langle d^{i*} u^{i+1}, v^i \rangle$ this paring descends to a bilinear pairing in cohomology $$ \langle-,-\rangle\colon H^i(\Gamma_c(\tilde{V}^{\bullet*}),d^{(\bullet-1)*}) \times H^i(\Gamma(V^\bullet),d^i) \to \mathbb{R} . $$

Finally, my question can be boiled down to the following: is this pairing non-degenerate (and if not what is its rank)?

As I mentioned in my first paragraph, the case $V^i = \Lambda^i T^*M$ with $d^i$ the de Rham differential is well known. Its formal adjoint complex is isomorphic to the de Rham complex itself. Essentially, Poincaré duality states that the natural pairing in cohomology is non-degenerate. I am hoping that a more general result can be deduced from Verdier duality applied to the sheaf $\mathcal{V}$ resolved by the complex $(\Gamma(V^\bullet),d^\bullet)$. I know that the sheaf cohomology $H^i(M,\mathcal{V})$ can be identified with $H^i(\Gamma(V^\bullet),d^\bullet)$. I also know that the abstract form of the duality states that the algebraic dual $H^i(M,\mathcal{V})^*$ is given by the sheaf cohomology with compact supports $H^i_c(M,\mathcal{V}^\vee)$ with coefficients in the "dualizing sheaf" $\mathcal{V}^\vee$. Unfortunately, I'm having trouble extracting the relationship between $\mathcal{V}^\vee$ and my formal adjoint complex $(\Gamma_c(\tilde{V}^{\bullet*}), d^{(\bullet-1)*})$ from standard references (e.g., the books of Iversen or Kashiwara and Schapira).

fineresolution of some sheaf (like locally constant functions in the de Rham case). I'm curious about your remark. Could you expand on how to apply Verdier duality to the resolved sheaf, and then resolve the Verdier dual sheaf itself using vector bundles? – Igor Khavkine Sep 20 '13 at 8:01