Background: When Ueno builds the fully faithful functor from Var/k to Sch/k he mentions that the variety $V$ can be identified with the rational points of $t(V)$ over $k$. I know how to prove this on affine everything and will work out the general case at some future time.

The question that this got me thinking about was if $X$ is a $k$-scheme where $k$ is algebraically closed, then are the $k$-rational points of $X$ just the closed points? This is probably extremely well known, but I can't find it explicitly stated nor can I find a counterexample.

For $k$ not algebraically closed, I can come up with examples where this is not true. So in general is there some relation between the closed points and rational points on schemes (everything over $k$)?

This would give a bit more insight into what this functor does. It takes the variety and makes all the points into closed points of a scheme, then adds the generic points necessary to actually make it a legitimate scheme. General tangential thoughts on this are welcome as well.