I've recently been studying Euler's theories on music, and I came across Euler's concept of gradus suavitatis or 'degree of pleasure' of a rational number representing the ratio of two tones. (I found this on http://www.mathematik.com/Piano/)
The formula is $G(p/q)=1+\Sigma e_i (p_i-1)$ where $p,q$ are relatively prime, the $p_i$ are the prime factors of $pq$ and $e_i$ is the multiplicity of $p_i$.
This formula seemed familiar. Is this formula used in number theory, and, if so, what is its mathematical significance?