When exactly were $\ell_p$ norms first defined and used?
(Here is what I know, or think I know: Lebesgue and/or Riesz had something to do with them, but in some sense they go back to Minkowski, since Minkowski's inequality is (in essence) the statement that an $\ell_p$ norm is a norm.)
Here is what is really my main question: how were $\ell_p$ norms ($p\geq 1$ arbitrary) first used? What was their motivation? It is clear that $\ell_1$, $\ell_2$ and $\ell_\infty$ norms are very natural, and their use long predates the formal definition of "form". The $\ell_4$ norm also pops up on its own sometimes. In contrast, $\ell_p$ norms for other $p$ seem to arise most often in the course of a proof, as a tool, when one needs some notion of "size" that falls between an $\ell_1$ and an $\ell_2$ norm (for example). Did the first uses of $\ell_p$ norms fit this framework? Can you think of some interesting (and preferably early) instances that do not obey this pattern?