The structure of the automorphism group becomes clear when one looks at the Conway topograph of a given form. For an indefinite form not representing 0 the topograph has an infinite periodic river separating the positive and negative values, so there is always an infinite cyclic subgroup of the automorphism group, in addition to the order 2 automorphism $(x,y)\mapsto(-x,-y)$ that acts trivially on the topograph. Some forms have additional order 2 symmetries reflecting across lines perpendicular to the river, giving an infinite dihedral subgroup of the automorphism group. If "anti-automorphisms" that change the sign of the values of a form are allowed as automorphisms, there can also be 180 degree rotational symmetries or glide reflection symmetries. Overall, five of the seven frieze groups are realizable as symmetries of the topograph. The two that aren't realizable involve reflections across the river, which cannot be symmetries of the topograph.

In particular all torsion in the automorphism group is 2-torsion, of order either 2 or 4.