No, strong multiplicity one says that all-but-finitely-many of the $a_p$'s determine all the others.

Edit in response to comment/query, and further in response to subsequent comments: ... and, once all the other coefficients are determined by strong multiplicity one (for newforms), invoke Shimura's results (arguably going back to Fricke-Klein in principle) that automorphisms of the complex numbers over $\mathbb Q$ (not merely Galois automorphisms on an algebraic closure of $\mathbb Q$) can be applied to the Fourier coefficients of a holomorphic modular form, producing another. In the case at hand, applying such an automorphism over the field generated by all the given Fourier coefficients, and subtracting, would either give a modular form with only finitely-many non-zero $a_p$'s (impossible), or $0$ (giving the desired result).

[Thanks to MF1 for corrections.]