$\DeclareMathOperator{\GL}{GL} \DeclareMathOperator{\SL}{SL}$
For clarity, let's assume that $V$ is a module on which $G$ acts by a representation $D\colon G \to \GL(V)$. Then "every element of $H$ is induced by $\SL(V)$" means that for every $h\in H$ there is some $S\in \SL(V)$ such that $D(g^h) = D(g)^S$ for all $g\in G$.

This is true when $V$ is an irreducibe, faithful module over the complex numbers (or any algebraically closed field of characteristic $\neq p$). This is so because an irreducible, faithful character of $G$ vanishes outside the center, and is determined by its values on the center. Thus the representation $g\mapsto D(g^h)$ is similar to $D$ for $h\in H$, and so there is $S\in \GL(V)$ with $D(g^h) = D(g)^S$ for all $g$. As the field is algebraically closed, we can multiply with a suitable scalar to get $S\in \SL(V)$.

This argument also holds when $V$ is not irreducible, but all irreducible constituents are faithful. On the other hand, if we allow for non-faithful (=linear) constituents, then $h\in H$ may map these to other constituents, and so $D$ and $D^h$ can not be similar. Also, when the field is not algebraically closed, but $V$ irreducible (even absolutely irreducible), then $D$ and $D^h$ are similar, but maybe not in $\SL(V)$. This happens in the exponent $p^2$ case, and also in the case where $G$ has order $3^3$ and exponent $3$.

Conversely, when $V$ is absolutely irreducible, then every element in the normalizer of $D(G)$ in $\SL(V)$ (or $\GL(V)$) induces an element of $H$, since the center of $G$ is mapped to the center of $\GL(V)$ by $D$. If $V$ is not absolutely irreducible, then an element in $\SL(V)$ may induce a non-trivial action on the center of $G$.