What is a topological characterization of the class of spaces that have the form $G/H$ for a locally compact, Hausdorff group $G$ and a closed subgroup $H$ ?
Such a space $X=G/H$ necessarily satisfies the following conditions:
1) $X$ is locally compact, Hausdorff.
2) $X$ is (topologically) homogeneous (i.e., for any points $x,y\in X$ there exists a homeomorphism $\phi$ of $X$ such that $\phi(x)=y$).
3) $X$ satisfies the Suslin condition (i.e., every collection of non-empty, disjoint, open subsets of $X$ is countable; this follows from the Haar-measure on $G$).
Are these conditions sufficient? Maybe this is easier if one restricts attention to the class of separable, metric spaces.
Note that homogeneity for $X$ means exactly that the homeomorphism-group Homeo(X) acts transitively on $X$. If $X$ is also locally compact, separable and metric, then Homeo(X) is a separable, complete metric space (in the compact-open topology), and it follows that $X$ is homeomorphic to $G/G_x$, where $G_x$ is the stabilizer subgroup (also called isotopy group). See for instance the following articles for these results:
Effros (1965) # Transformation groups and C*-algebras [Ann. Math. (2) 81]
Ungar (1975) # On all kinds of homogeneous spaces [Trans. AMS 212]
The question now is under which conditions there exists a locally compact subgroup of Homeo(X) which still acts transitively on $X$.
The motivation for this question is to clarify the notion of "homogeneous space". Sometimes in the literature, by a homogeneous space it is not understood a (topological) homogeneous space but a coset space $G/H$ where $G$ is usually even assumed to be a Lie group.