Equations are for cutting schemes out of ambient schemes. Are you sure you want to cut your flag manifold out of projective space? There are easier places to find it.

To begin with, you could embed $Flags(n) \to \prod_{k=1}^{n-1} Gr_k(n)$, taking the flag to its list of subspaces. Then the equations are "for each $i < j$, the $i$-plane should be contained in the $j$-plane".

You could Plücker embed each Grassmannian $Gr_k(n)$ into projective space, or you could regard it as $GL(k) \backslash \backslash M_{k\times n}$, i.e. look at row-spans of $k\times n$ matrices. Then the equations above say that when you stack your $i\times n$ matrix and $j\times n$, the resulting $(i+j)\times n$ matrix should only have rank $j$, so all $(j+1)\times (j+1)$ determinants should vanish. There's some equations.

If you do Plücker embed, it means you only have the Plücker coordinates on those Grassmannians, and so you get Plücker relations between the Plücker coordinates of size $i$ and $j$. I find these much harder to remember than the determinants above.

Once you've Plücker embedded the Grassmannians, then you can Veronese them each by different amounts, then Segre the whole thing together, and you get all the projecively normal embeddings of the flag manifold. It's interesting to note that all the equations encountered along the way are linear or quadratic (a theorem of Ramanathan for general $G$).

Anyway one very good answer to your actual question is [Miller-Sturmfels], chapter 15 I think it is, as Victor Protsak suggested.