This isn't really an answer, but .... If you change "pre-image" to "image", then you are asking about Lusin's Condition (N). Despite being well-studied, a characterization of such functions would seem to be a fairly deep problem. Most results on condition (N), it would seem, are counterexamples, such as the construction of functions in certain Sobolev spaces which fail to obey condition (N). The positive results are somewhat scarcer. For instance, though the 1 dimensional case has been solved, as I understand it the 2 dimensional case is far from it, though there are some known sufficient conditions. Amongst these is that the Jacobian mapping $Jf$ of a $W^{1,n}$ function be strictly positive, or that a $W^{1,n}$ mapping be positive and open.

Some of these criteria could, obviously, imply something about what you are asking.

That said, this early in the morning, I am not certain whether your question is actually much easier than asking about condition (N), and could not, perhaps, receive a full resolution here on MO.