A function is additive if $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$. Intuitively, it might seem that an additive function from R to R must be linear, specifically of the form $f(x) = kx$. But assuming the axiom of choice, that is wrong, and the proof is rather simple: you just take a Hamel basis of $\mathbb{R}$ as a vector space over $\mathbb{Q}$, and then you define your function f to be different in at least two distinct elements of the basis.

But my question is this: if there is no Hamel basis of $\mathbb{R}$, then must $f$ be linear? To put it another way, does ZF + the existence of a nonlinear additive function imply the existence of Hamel basis of $\mathbb{R}$?

I checked the Consequences of the Axiom of Choice Project, a database of choice axioms and their relationships here, and it said that it didn't know.