A few years ago I first read about the marvelous Euler identity:
where $p(n)$ is the number of partitions of $n$ ($p(0)=1$ by convention) and some of its beautiful consequences (like the pentagonal number theorem). Taking log of both sides of Euler identity and differentiating, the following nice recursive formula magically appears:
where $\sigma(n)$ denotes the sum of the divisors of $n$. After some googling I found this identity quoted in a few places, but always without any reference. Since I am quite ignorant about the theory of partitions and related matters, I would like very much to know:
1) Who discovered this identity? Does it have a name?
and the much more interesting:
2) Is there a proof without generating functions?