Let $G$ and $H$ be locally compact totally disconnected abelian groups, and $f:G\rightarrow H$ a surjective open map. Let $Y\subseteq G$ be a discrete subgroup in the subspace topology. Is it true that the image $f(Y)$ is also discrete in the subspace topology? If so, how can one prove it?
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No, that's false. You didn't say that $f$ is a homomorphism, but the answer is still no if we require this. Let $G = {\bf Z} \times C_2 \times C_3 \times C_5 \times \cdots$ be the product of the infinite cyclic group and the cyclic groups of all prime orders. Let $H = C_2 \times C_3 \times C_5 \times \cdots$ and let $f: G \to H$ be the obvious homomorphism with kernel ${\bf Z}$. Let $Y$ be the subgroup of $G$ generated by the element $(1, 1, 1, \ldots)$. It is a discrete infinite cyclic subgroup, but its image in $H$ is not discrete (in fact, it is dense in $H$). 

