I'm not quite sure the best way to ask this, so bear with me: Does anyone know of a subset of integers such that, for any odd prime p, the subset only occupies (p-1)/2 equivalence classes mod p (and does so uniformly)?
For example, take the subset of squares. Elementary number theory shows that they (as quadratic residues) occupy (p+1)/2 equivalence classes mod p. But the answer to the above is not to take the non-residues since being a non-residue is a local property, not a property of an integer.
It is possible to construct such a set of integers one element at a time in an ad hoc manner using some initial members, a whole lot of CRT, and making a somewhat arbitrary choice at each step. But is there a more ``well-known'' set that has this property?