Let $X$ be a finite-type scheme over a field $k$. Let $G$ be a finite-type group scheme over $k$; we write $G_X$ for the base-change of $G$ from $\operatorname{Spec}(k)$ to $X$.

Suppose $f : Y \rightarrow X$ is a $G_X$-torsor for the fppf topology (i.e. we have an $X$-group scheme action of $G_X$ on $Y$ such that the morphism $G_X \times_X Y \rightarrow Y \times_X Y$ given on points by $(g,y) \mapsto (y,gy)$ is an isomorphism). Such a $Y$ gives a class $[Y]$ in the fppf cohomology set $H^1(X,G_X)$ that classifies fppf $G_X$-torsor sheaves over $X$ (this is defined with Cech cohomology).

Consider the specialization map $$ s : X(k) \rightarrow H^1(k,G) $$ that sends $x : \operatorname{Spec}(k) \rightarrow X$ to the pull-back of $[Y]$ by $x$, which is an element of $H^1(k,G)$. Note: if $G$ is smooth, the fppf cohomology set $H^1(k,G)$ may be identified with the Galois cohomology set $H^1(k,G(k^{\mathrm{sep}}))$.

Supposing it exists, fix a $y \in Y(k)$. We obtain an exact sequence of pointed sets $$ 0 \rightarrow G(k) \rightarrow Y(k) \stackrel{f}{\rightarrow} X(k) \stackrel{s}{\rightarrow} H^1(k,G) $$ where $G(k) \rightarrow Y(k)$ is just the inclusion of the fiber above $y$. From the looks of it, I'd say that this has to be the start of a long exact sequence of some kind. The question only is: what kind? I don't see an obvious way of continuing it, since $Y$ doesn't necessarily carry any group structure so as to give meaning to the expression $H^1(k,Y)$.

**Question:** Is this exact sequence part of a long exact sequence? For instance, are we witnessing some instantiation of homotopy theory? If not, is there any other more conceptual way of viewing the above sequence?

**Example:** As a motivating example, let me show you why the image of $s$ - and therefore a continuation of the exact sequence from above - is an interesting object of study. Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbf{Q}$ given by $y^2=f(x)$. Let $Y$ be $E - E[2]$, let $X$ be $\operatorname{Spec}(\mathbf{Q}[x,f^{-1}])$ (i.e., the affine line with coordinate $x$ and with the subscheme $f=0$ deleted), and let $f:Y \rightarrow X$ be the map that sends $(x,y)$ to $x$. Let $G = \mu_2$. We endow $Y$ with the structure of a $G$-torsor by letting the non-trivial element of $G$ send $(x,y)$ to $(x,-y)$. Then the image of the map
\begin{align*}
X(\mathbf{Q}) & \rightarrow \mathbf{Q}^{\ast}/\mathbf{Q}^{\ast 2} ~~ (\cong H^1(\mathbf{Q},\mu_2)) \\\
x & \mapsto f(x) \pmod{\mathbf{Q}^{\ast}/\mathbf{Q}^{\ast 2}}
\end{align*}
consists precisely of those elements $c \in \mathbf{Q}^{\ast}/\mathbf{Q}^{\ast 2}$ such that $cy^2=f(x)$ contains rational points other than the "trivial ones", i.e. the zeros of $f$ and the point at infinity.