Suppose we are given the Fourier coefficients of an $L^2$ function on the circle. Are there necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients that allow us to determine that $f$ is Hölder continuous of order $\alpha$?

Note that the necessary condition $|\hat{f}(n)| \leq C_f|n|^{-\alpha}$ is not sufficient. For example if $\hat{f}(n)=|n|^{-2/3}$ for all $n$ then $f$ is an $L^2$ function whose Fourier series does not converge absolutely. Therefore $f$ cannot be Holder continuous of order $\alpha>1/2$.