Here's a somewhat trivial one, but it is one that category theorists use all the time:
Let us say that a functor $F : \mathcal{C} \to \mathcal{D}$ is a weak equivalence if it is fully faithful and essentially surjective on objects, and that it is a strong equivalence if there exists a functor $G : \mathcal{D} \to \mathcal{C}$ such that $G F \cong \textrm{id}_{\mathcal{C}}$ and $F G \cong \textrm{id}_\mathcal{D}$.
Proposition. In Zermelo set theory with only bounded separation, the following are equivalent:
- Every surjection of sets splits.
- Any weak equivalence between two small categories is a strong equivalence.
- Any weak equivalence between two small groupoids is a strong equivalence.
- Any weak equivalence between two small preorders is a strong equivalence.
- Any weak equivalence between two small setoids is a strong equivalence.
Here, by "small" I mean something internal to the set-theoretic universe in question.
On the other hand, if you're asking for category-theoretic formulations of the axiom of choice inside some category of "sets", then there are several:
- The usual formulation just says that every epimorphism in $\textbf{Set}$ splits. This generalises easily to any category.
In any topos $\mathcal{E}$, one can formulate the axiom schema "every surjection $X \to Y$ splits" in the internal language of $\mathcal{E}$, and this axiom schema is valid if and only if every object is internally projective, in the sense that the functor $(-)^X : \mathcal{E} \to \mathcal{E}$ preserves epimorphisms. This is called the internal axiom of choice.
The internal axiom of choice holds in $\textbf{Set}$ precisely if the usual axiom of choice holds; this is because $\textbf{Set}$ is a well-pointed topos; but in general the internal axiom of choice is weaker. For example, for any discrete group $G$, the category $\mathbf{B} G$ of all $G$-sets and $G$-equivariant maps is a topos in which the internal axiom of choice holds, but if $G$ is any non-trivial group whatsoever, then there exist epimorphisms in $\mathbf{B} G$ that do not split. (For example, $G \to 1$, where $G$ acts on itself by translation.)