I've been given a very simple motivating and instructive show case for the Yoneda lemma:
Given the category of graphs and a graph object $G$, seen as a quadruple $(V_G,\ E_G,\ S_G:E\rightarrow V,\ T_G:E \rightarrow V)$.
Consider $K_1$ and $K_2$, the one-vertex and the one-edge graph and the two morphisms $\sigma$ and $\tau$ from $K_1$ to $K_2$.
Now consider the graph $H$ with
- $V_H = Hom(K_1,G)$
- $E_H = Hom(K_2,G)$
- $S_H(e) = e \circ \sigma: K_1 \rightarrow G$ for $e \in E_H$
- $T_H(e) = e \circ \tau: K_1 \rightarrow G$ for $e \in E_H$
It can be easily seen that $H$ is isomorphic to $G$.
I have learned that a) the category of graphs is a presheaf category and that b) $K_1$, $K_2$ are precisely the representable functors.
Now I am looking for other simple motivating and instructive show cases.
By the way: Shouldn't such an show case be added to the Wikipedia entry on Yoneda's lemma?