The answer is no. Let $C$ be a category such that the unique map from $C$ to the terminal category is a composition of $n$ adjoints. Then $C$ has an object $x_0$ such that every other object of $C$ can be connected to $x_0$ by a zigzag of length at most $n$; this is easy to prove by induction on $n$.

In particular, let $R$ be the "infinite zigzag", the unique poset such that $|BR|$ is homeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$. Then $BR$ is contractible, but the unique map from $R$ to the terminal category cannot be a composition of adjoints. Note, however, that this map is a *transfinite* composition of adjoints (of length $\omega$). It seems plausible to me that any functor between (small) categories which is an equivalence on nerves could be a transfinite composition of adjoints.