Consider the category $\operatorname{Meas}$ of measurable spaces: its objects are sets equipped with $\sigma$-algebras, and its morphisms are measurable functions between spaces.

As Gerald Edgar & Michael Greinecker pointed out in this thread, there is the natural endofunctor $M : \operatorname{Meas} \to \operatorname{Meas}$ which sends a space $X$ to the collection $M(X)$ of (extended-real-valued) measures on $X$. This collection $M(X)$ is a measurable space, equipped with the minimal $\sigma$-algebra so that the evaluation functions $\mu \mapsto \mu(A)$ are measurable. A morphism $f : X \to Y$ is mapped to the push-forwarding map $f_* : \mu \mapsto \mu \circ f^{-1}$.

We may naturally iterate this endofunctor. Thinking of a measure on $X$ as a statistical ensemble, the space $M^2(X) = M(M(X))$ consists of ensembles-of-ensembles. Such hierarchical spaces are important in probability theory and dynamical systems. We may go further, defining $M^3(X) = M(M(M(X)))$ and so forth.

This simply generates a dynamical system on the category of measurable spaces, where the initial condition $X \in \operatorname{Meas}^{\operatorname{ob}}$ gets mapped to its successors $M(X)$, $M^2(X)$, $M^3(X)$, etc. Understanding these categorical dynamics is a hard problem, to say the least. Understanding the fixed ``points'', on the other hand, might actually be tractable. Hence the question:

What are the fixed objects of the endofunctor $M :\operatorname{Meas} \to \operatorname{Meas}$ ?