**Background:** I'm trying a problem on representations of reductive groups over various finite rings towards which this is very relevant (what I want to do is a very specialized case of this problem, and I want to know what background theory has been done for this situation in the literature and what is known about this). In characteristic $0$ over an algebraically closed field, and over finite fields, classifying conjugacy classes in reductive groups over field is a very well-known and well-studied problem (sometimes in preparation for studying representations of these).

**Question**: Let $R$ be a local commutative ring, either in characteristic $0$, algebraically closed, or in characteristic $p$ (algebraically closed OR finite field). If you want to complicate matters, and have an answer for non-commutative rings as well, I would be happy to see it, but I think the problem is non-trivial enough as is - and as far as I know, only $GL$ can be easily defined over non-commutative rings). *Edit:* Also specify that $R$ is an algebra over its residue field, and has an identity (which I believe is necessary to make the following argument work; again if you don't need this restriction feel free to not use it).

Let $G$ be a reductive group (if you want, feel free to restrict to just the classical groups, $GL$, $SL$, $Sp$, and $SO$) defined over $R$. *What can be said about classifying conjugacy classes in $G$?* What is clear is the Levi decomposition of $G$, as the semi-direct product of the reductive group defined over the residue field of $R$, and $N$, the set of all matrices that are congruent entry-wise to the identity matrix, modulo the maximal ideal of $R$ (the latter is the normal subgroup). Using the semi-direct product, one can say something implicit about the conjugacy classes; first by studying the conjugation action of the reductive group on the unipotent algebraic group $N$, then studying the conjugacy classes in $N$, then extending this to the whole group.

Are there any special cases of this problem that have been studied in the literature? Is there something more than can be said in general (further to what I have said above about the semi-direct product)?.