If $f$ and $g$ are *partial* functions $\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$, define six preorder relations $f \preceq g$ as follows:

$f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}}} g$ ("$f$ is strict/Sasso reducible to $g$") when there exists a Turing machine with oracle that, when given $g$ as oracle, computes $f$ (with the convention that whenever the computation calls $g$ on an undefined value, it does not terminate; and by "computes $f$", we mean that the computation terminates on input $n$ exactly when $f(n)$ is defined and, when this is the case, it returns $f(n)$);

$f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{N}}} g$ ("$f$ is nondeterministic/enumeration reducible to $g$") when there exists a

*nondeterministic*Turing machine with oracle that, when given $g$ as oracle, computes $f$ in the sense that there is at least one terminating branch of computation on input $n$ exactly when $f(n)$ is defined and, when this is the case, all terminating branches return $f(n)$ (again with the convention that whenever a branch of computation calls $g$ on an undefined value, it does not terminate);$f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{W}}} g$ ("$f$ is weak reducible to $g$") when there exists a nondeterministic Turing machine with oracle as above, but with the additional constraint that

*whatever*the oracle $h$ (a partial function $\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$) given to it, and whatever the input $n$, all terminating branches of computation (if there are any) must return the same value, i.e., the machine defines a "recursive operator" on partial functions $h$;$f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}*}} g$, $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{N}*}} g$ and $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{W}*}} g$ (perhaps call this "subreducible"?) mean that there exists a partial function $\hat f$ such that $\hat f \mathop{\preceq_{X}} g$ (for the corresponding subscript $X$ without the asterisk) and $f \subseteq \hat f$ (in other words, the Turing machine is permitted to compute

*more*values than $f$).

(From what I understand, $\mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}}}$ was defined by Leonard Sasso and $\mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{N}}}$ is supposed to be equivalent to enumeration reducibility as defined in §9.7 of Roger's book on Recursive functions.)

Each of these six relations is reflexive and transitive, and is equivalent to ordinary Turing reduction when $f$ and $g$ are, in fact, total functions. So we get six different notions of "partial Turing degree" (S-degrees, N-degrees, etc.), all of which contain a subset isomorphic to the usual (total) Turing degrees. Also, $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}}} g$ implies $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{W}}} g$ which in turn implies $f \mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{N}}} g$ and none of these implications can be reversed (Rogers §13.6, th. XIX); obviously each $f \mathop{\preceq_{X}} g$ implies $f \mathop{\preceq_{X*}} g$, and none of the converse (consider $g=0$ and $f$ the restriction of $g$ to a non recursively enumerable set). Furthermore, there exist N-degrees (and consequently W-degrees and S-degrees) which are do not contain a total function (=which are not total Turing degrees): see Rogers, §13.6, th. XVIII.

But my question is mostly about $(X*)$-degrees:

do they have a standard name? have they been studied?

is it even true that there exist $(X*)$-degrees which do not contain a total function, as it is true for the $X$-degrees?

are $\mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{S}*}}$ and $\mathop{\preceq_{\mathrm{N}*}}$ distinct?