# Can stabilizer groups in an orbifold have global twisting?

Can stabilizer groups in an orbifold have global twisting?

For example, consider the two groups $\mathbb Z/3\times\mathbb Z$ and $\mathbb Z/3\rtimes\mathbb Z$ (where $\mathbb Z\to\operatorname{Aut}(\mathbb Z/3)$ is the unique nontrivial map). Both groups act on $\mathbb R$ through their common quotient $\mathbb Z$, so there are two orbifolds here: $$M_1=[\mathbb R/(\mathbb Z/3\times\mathbb Z)]$$ $$M_2=[\mathbb R/(\mathbb Z/3\rtimes\mathbb Z)]$$ The coarse spaces of $M_1$ and $M_2$ are both $S^1=\mathbb R/\mathbb Z$, and in both $M_1$ and $M_2$, all points have stabilizer group isomorphic to $\mathbb Z/3$. Are $M_1$ and $M_2$ isomorphic as orbifolds?

Why they should be different: Over any orbifold $X$, we think of there being space $E$ with a "nice" map $\pi:E\to X$ such that $\pi^{-1}(\{x\})$ is a $K(\Gamma_x,1)$ (see for example this paper by André Henriques). In the case of $M_1$ and $M_2$, this just means we have a $K(\mathbb Z/3,1)$ bundle over $S^1$, and its monodromy is a homomorphism $\mathbb Z\to\operatorname{Aut}(\mathbb Z/3)$ which should recover the difference between $\mathbb Z/3\times\mathbb Z$ and $\mathbb Z/3\rtimes\mathbb Z$.

This twisting is a subtle point that I don't see mentioned explicitly anywhere, and I didn't realize it could happen until now, when I actually have to do something with orbifolds and the precise definition becomes important.

End note: The answers to these related questions have very good answers in regards to defining orbifolds.

Looking for an introduction to orbifolds

What is meant by smooth orbifold?

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Both of your examples are $\mathbb{Z}/3$ bundles gerbes over $S^1$, one trivial, one not. So they are not the same as stacks.
Another example I like comes from an ineffective action of $U(1)$ on $S^3$, say given by $\lambda \cdot z = \lambda^3 z$. The corresponding etale Lie groupoid can be thought of as a nontrivial $\mathbb{Z}/3$ gerbe bundle over $S^2$. Of course there is also a trivial one: $\mathbb{Z}/3$ acting trivially on $S^2$.