this may be too elementary for mathoverflow, but I'll give it a try.
rings are commutative here. it is well-known that every $0$-dimensional noetherian ring is artinian. the standard proof uses a filtration argument; then it's left to show that every finitely generated vector space is artinian (dimension!) and that extensions of artinian by artinian modules are artinian (tage the images and the preimages of the chain, finally both are stable). by a sheaf argument, it's easy to reduce to: every noetherian ring with exactly one prime ideal is artinian.
is there a proof which is somehow more direct? perhaps a clever manipulation of chains of ideals? I don't expect it, but it would be great for the students in my tutorial, which had to solve this as an exercise without knowing anything about artinian or noetherian rings going beyond the definitions.