Probably the earliest intrinsic definition of Weyl group occurs in section 1.2 of the groundbreaking paper "Representations of Reductive Groups Over Finite Fields" by Deligne and Lusztig (Ann. of Math. 103, 1976, available at JSTOR). This is done elegantly in the closely related but more general setting of a reductive algebraic group
$G$ over an arbitrary algebraically closed field (though their interest is mainly in prime characteristic). Letting
$X$ denote the set of all Borel subgroups of
$G$, the set of
$X \times X$ provides a natural model for a universal Weyl group of
$G$ (or its Lie algebra).
[ADDED] In the algebraic group setting, this intrinsic definition depends just on knowing what a connected reductive (or semisimple) group is and what a Borel subgroup is (maximal closed connected solvable subgroup). But obviously one can't exploit the "Weyl group" without knowing more of the structure theory: conjugacy theorems, Bruhat decomposition. (Is it a group? finite?) In the easier characteristic 0 Lie algebra theory, where
$X$ becomes the set of Borel subalgebras (whose definition requires some theory) with conjugation action by the adjoint group, this abstract notion of "Weyl group" similarly needs unpacking. But the Deligne-Lusztig definition is a good conceptual one for their purposes and sneaks in the underlying set
$X$ of the flag variety of
$G$. Any intrinsic definition of the Weyl group needs serious background in Lie theory.
In the treatment by Chriss and Ginzburg, even when one is primarily interested in the Lie algebra picture, the group in the background tends to play an important role. Indeed, in the early work of Borel and Chevalley on semisimple algebraic groups, the Weyl group appears most naturally in the guise of the finite quotient
$W_G(T) :=N_G(T)/T$ for a fixed maximal torus
$T$. Then one sees
$W$ as generated by reflections relative to roots, etc. As in the parallel Lie algebra setting in characteristic 0, the maximal tori (or Cartan subalgebras) are all conjugate under the adjoint group action, but this falls short of giving an intrinsic definition of the sort provided by Deligne-Lusztig.
[Weyl himself gave the group an awkward name, but was mainly concerned with its use in the context of a compact Lie group. The notion basically originates earlier in the work of Cartan, but it took a while to see the root system and Weyl group as combinatorial objects including the Coxeter presentation of the group as a reflection group (carried over by Witt to Lie algebras).]