I'm not very experienced in this topic, but I read a short description of the YangMills existence and mass gap problem, and as long as I understood it has mainly physical consequences and implications. Therefore, I was just curious what it has to do with mathematics? And what are the mathematical and general consequences of a possible solution to it?

There is a long, long list of mathematical subjects that were either pioneered or significantly inspired by results in quantum field theory. However, while physicists may trust the manipulations they do in QFT, and the results of those manipulations have been spectacularly successful, for almost every interesting quantum field theory, there isn't even a rigorous definition or existence proof, much less a justification behind the manipulations that led to the invention of, for example, SeibergWitten invariants. Solving the mass gap problem in YangMills would represent the successful rigorous existence of a very nontrivial quantum field theory and the demonstration of a very nontrivial result about that field theory (that hasn't even been adequately demonstrated using physical techniques). While there probably aren't many direct mathematical consequences to the existence of a mass gap, the techniques involved would almost assuredly be applicable towards the large number of QFT inspired results in mathematics. 

