There are many introductions to number theory, but few are as original (my term for what others would call weird) as Fueter's "Synthetische Zahlentheorie" published in 1925.
It starts with elementary number theory, and discusses the arithmetic of cyclotomic
fields up to the Dedekind zeta function and applications to quadratic and cubic reciprocity.
In § 5, Fueter defines rays in the field of rational numbers:
Definition. If a set of numbers has the property that it contains the product and the quotient of any two of its elements, then this set is called a ray.
Actually Fueter does not use the word "set" [Menge] but rather talks about a "domain of numbers" [Bereich von Zahlen]. At the end of this paragraph he makes the following historical remarks:
The necessity of considering sets with the property of rays was first realized by Weber. He
called these sets "number groups". Independently, these groups were introduced by R. Fueter
(Der Klassenkörper der quadratischen Körper und die komplexe Multiplikation, Diss. Univ. Göttingen, 1903; see also Crelle 130 (1905), p. 208), who called them rays. We keep this name here since it is similar in nature to the geometric names of fields [in German: Körper, i.e., solid] and ring, and since the word "group" does
not imply commutativity, which is always satisfied by rays.
I would have been surprised had there been connections with infinite primes; back in 1903,
Hilbert had already defined infinite primes, but their prominent role in class field theory only became apparent through the work of Furtwängler and Takagi, which took place after the term "ray" had been coined.