This has been studied for group rings to some extend. It is a theorem of Wolfgang Lück that a homomorphism $\varphi \colon G_0(\mathbb Z \Gamma) \to \mathbb R$ can be constructed with the property $\varphi([\mathbb Z \Gamma]) = 1$ if $\Gamma$ is amenable. Moreover, such a homomorphism cannot exist if $\Gamma$ contains a non-abelian free group. It is conjectured that the existence is a characterization of amenability. Moreover, if $\Gamma$ is torsionfree and amenable, the conjecture is that the range of $\varphi$ is $\mathbb Z$, this is called Atiyah's conjecture.

Sometimes, maps like the one you consider exist on subcategories of the category of f.g. modules. An easy example is the category of f.g. abelian groups $A$, so that $A \otimes_{\mathbb Z} \mathbb Q=0$, i.e. torsion groups. Then, the map $A \mapsto \log |A|$ is additive.

There is also a version for f.g. modules over the group ring of an amenable group. It can be shown that assinging to a f.g. module $M$ over $\mathbb Z \Gamma$ ($\Gamma$ is amenable here) the entropy of the natural $\Gamma$-action on the Pontryagin dual of $M$ is additive. This is Yuzvinskii's Additivity Formula as proved by Hanfeng Li in

Hanfeng Li, *Compact group automorphisms, addition formulas and Fuglede-Kadison determinants*, Ann. of Math. (2) 176 (2012), no. 1, 303--347.

If $\Gamma$ is finite, then this entropy is essentially the logarithm of the cardinality of $M$. For infinite $\Gamma$, this invariant of $M$ is equal to the so-called $\ell^2$-Torsion of $M$, if it can be defined. For $\Gamma = \mathbb Z^d$, this invariant is related to the Mahler measure and of number theoretic significance.