Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals - MathOverflow most recent 30 from http://mathoverflow.net 2013-05-23T18:12:35Z http://mathoverflow.net/feeds/question/9773 http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/rdf http://mathoverflow.net/questions/9773/boundedness-of-nonlinear-continuous-functionals Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals Ady 2009-12-26T03:01:57Z 2010-02-13T21:19:55Z <p>Let $K$ be the closed unit ball of $C[0,1]$, and let $f$ in $C(K,\mathbb{\, R})$. Is it true that there exists an infinite dimensional reflexive subspace $E$ of $C[0,1]$ s.t. $f(K\cap E)$ is bounded ?</p> <p>If the answer is affirmative, this would be a very weak kind of Weierstrass-type theorem [and also a very general one, due to the "universality" of $C[0,1]$ (i.e., the Banach-Mazur Embedding Theorem)].</p> <p><hr /></p> <p>One may also replace $C[0,1]$ by $B[0,1]$, the space of <em>all</em> bounded functions on $[0,1]$, endowed with the sup-norm.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/9773/boundedness-of-nonlinear-continuous-functionals/9959#9959 Answer by Anonymous for Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals Anonymous 2009-12-28T16:06:38Z 2009-12-28T16:53:31Z <p>Ady, I think there is a counterexample to your question. To describe it, let (V_n) be a basis of [0,1] consisting of non-empy open sets; K stands for the closed unit ball of C[0,1]. For every n let C_n be the closure of V_n and define</p> <p>U_n={g in K: min{|g(t)|:t in C_n} > \|g\| - 1/4}</p> <p>where \|g\|=sup{|g(t)|:t in [0,1]}.</p> <p>The family (U_n) is an open cover of K. Let (F_m) be a partition of unity subordinate to (U_n). For every m let n_m be the least integer n such that supp(F_m)={g in K: F_m(g)>0} is contained in U_n.</p> <p>Now define F:K\to \mathbb{R} by</p> <p>F(g)= \sum_{m=1}^{\infty} n_m\cdot F_m(g)</p> <p>Notice that F is well-defined and continuous.</p> <p>Finally notice that F(K\cap E) is unbounded for every infinite-dimensional subspace E of C[0,1]. This follows from the following fact: for every integer i and every infinte-dimensional subspace E of C[0,1] there is a norm-one vector e in E such e is NOT in U_n for every n &lt; i (and therefore, if m is such that F_m(e)>0, then necessarily n_m is greater or equal to i which gives that F(e) is also greater or equal to i).</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/9773/boundedness-of-nonlinear-continuous-functionals/12836#12836 Answer by Pandelis Dodos for Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals Pandelis Dodos 2010-01-24T11:58:32Z 2010-01-25T16:37:43Z <p>Ady, I don't have an answer to the new version of your question but let me make some remarks which might be useful.</p> <p>The new version is about non-linear real-valued continuous functions on $\ell_\infty(\Gamma)$ where $\Gamma$ has the cardinality of the continuum. This can be slightly generalized as follows:</p> <p>Let $\kappa$ be an infinite cardinal and set $K$ to be the closed unit ball of $\ell_\infty(\kappa)$. Let $f:K\to\mathbb{R}$ be a continuous map. Does there exist an infinite-dimensional subspace $E$ of $\ell_\infty(\kappa)$ such that $f(K\cap E)$ is bounded?</p> <p>If $\kappa=\aleph_0$, then a counterexample can be constructed.</p> <p>On the other hand, if $\kappa$ is a measurable cardinal, then there exists a subspace $E$ of $\ell_\infty(\kappa)$ which is isomorphic to $c_0(\kappa)$ and such that $f(K\cap E)$ is bounded. The argument goes back to Ketonen. Let $FIN(\kappa)$ be the set of all non-empty finite subsets of $kappa$ and define a coloring $c:FIN(\kappa)\to\mathbb{N}$ as follows. Let $c(F)$ be $n$ if $n$ is the least integer $m$ such that</p> <p>$\max{ |f(x)|: x\in span{e_t: t\in F} and x\in K } \leq m$</p> <p>where $e_t$ is the dirac function at $t$. Notice that $c$ is well-defined. There exist $n_0\in\mathbb{N}$ and a subset $A$ of $\kappa$ with $|A|=\kappa$ and such that $c$ is constant on $FIN(A)$ and equal to $n_0$. If we set $E$ to be the closed linear span of ${e_t: t\in A}$, then $E$ is isomorphic to $c_0(\kappa)$ and $F(K\cap E)$ is in the interval $[-n_0, n_0]$.</p> <p>Concerning the continuum: it might be that there are set-theoretic issues. Firstly, let me recall that it is consistent that the the continuum is real-valued measurable (R. M. Solovay). On the other hand, if CH holds, then there is heavy (and quite advanced) machinery for killing" various Ramsey properties on $\omega_1$ (largely due to S. Todorcevic).</p> <p><hr /></p> <p>A quick remark: there exists a non-linear continuous map $f:K\to\mathbb{R}$, where $K$ is the closed unit ball of $c_0(\kappa)$ and $\kappa$ is the continuum, such that for every infinite-dimensional subspace $E$ of $c_0(\kappa)$ the set $f(K\cap E)$ is unbounded. </p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/9773/boundedness-of-nonlinear-continuous-functionals/14488#14488 Answer by Pandelis Dodos for Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals Pandelis Dodos 2010-02-07T12:17:55Z 2010-02-13T16:12:16Z <p>Firstly, let me give the details for $\ell_\infty(\aleph_0)$; $K$ stands for the closed unit ball of $\ell_\infty(\aleph_0)$. For every $n$ let $U_n={ x\in K: |x(n)| > 1/4 - \|x\| }$. The family $(U_n)$ is an open cover of $K$. Let $(F_m)$ be a partition of unity subordinate to $(U_n)$. For every $m$ let $n_m$ be the least integer $m$ such that $supp(F_m)$ is contained in $U_n$ and define $$F(x)=\sum_m n_m \cdot F_m(x)$$. Then using the arguments outlined above, one can show that $F(K\cap E)$ is unbounded for every infinite-dimensional subspace $E$ of $\ell_\infty(\aleph_0)$.</p> <p>Secondly, let me remark that my argument for $\ell_\infty(\kappa)$ with $\kappa$ measurable is not correct; I apologize for that (I have a remark at the end). What I can show is that for every $\kappa$ (even measurable) there exists a continuous function $F:K_0\to\mathbb{R}$, where $K_0$ is the closed unit ball of $c_0(\kappa)$, such that $F(K_0\cap E)$ is unbounded for every infinite-dimensional subspace $E$ of $c_0(\kappa)$. The argument is a variation of the previous one. For every pair of rationals $0 &lt; a &lt; b &lt; 1/4$ let $U_{a,b}$ be the set of all $x\in c_0(\kappa)$ such that for every $t\in\kappa$ either $|x(t)| &lt; a$ or $|x(t)| > b$. Notice that $U_{a,b}$ is open in $K_0$ and for every $x\in K_0$ there exists such a pair $(a,b)$ such that $x\in U_{a,b}$. Now for every $n$ (including zero) and every pair $0 &lt; a &lt; b &lt; 1/4$ let $U_{a,b,n}$ be the set of all $x\in U_{a,b}$ for which the cardinality of the set ${t: |x(t)| > b}$ is $n$. The family $(U_{a,b,n})$ is an open cover of $K_0$. Let $(F_i) (i\in I)$ be a partition of unity subordinate to a locally finite refinement of $(U_a,b,n)$. For every $i\in I$ set $L_i={n: there exist 0 &lt; a &lt; b &lt; 1/4 s.t. supp(F_i) is contained in U_{a,b,n}}$ and let $n_i$ be the least element of $L_i$. Now define $F:K_0\to\mathbb{R}$ by $$F(x)=\sum_i n_i \cdot F_i(x)$$. It is continuous.</p> <p>Now we check that $F(K_0\cap E)$ is unbounded for every infinite-dimensional subspace $E$ of $c_0(\kappa)$. So let $E$ be one. Since $c_0(\kappa)$ is hereditarily $c_0$, by James, we can find a normalized sequence $(e_n)$ in $E$ which a $2$-equivalent to the standard unit vector basis of $c_0$ (in particular, $(e_n)$ is weakly null). Fix some integer $M$. We may recursively select a sequence $(n_k)$ in $\mathbb{N}$ such that for all $k &lt; m$ the sets ${t: |e_{n_k}(t)| > 1/4M}$ and ${t: |e_{n_m}(t)| > 1/4M}$ are disjoint. Consider that vector $e= \sum_{k=1}^M e_{n_k}$. Observe, first, that $1/2\leq \|e\| \leq 2$. Also notice that the set ${t: |e(t)|\geq 3/4}$ has cardinality at least $M$. Let us normalize $e$ and denote the normalized vector by $v$. The set ${ t: |v(t)| \geq 3/8 }$ has cardinality at least $M$. Let $i\in I$ be such that $F_i(v)>0$. Let $0 &lt; a &lt; b &lt; 1/4$ and $n$ be arbitrary such that $supp(F_i)$ is contained in $U_{a,b,n}$. Notice that the set ${t: |v(t)| \geq 3/8}$ is contained in the set ${t: |v(t)|> b}$, and so, the cardinality of the set ${t: |v(t)| > b}$ is at least $M$. It follows that $n_i\geq M$ yielding that $F(v)\geq M$.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/9773/boundedness-of-nonlinear-continuous-functionals/15076#15076 Answer by Ady for Boundedness of nonlinear continuous functionals Ady 2010-02-12T05:52:07Z 2010-02-12T05:52:07Z <p>There is a simpler counterexample for the $C[0,1]$ case. Namely, $f(x):=$ $\log\left(1-\left\Vert x\right\Vert _{\infty}+\left\Vert Vx\right\Vert _{\infty}\right)$ </p> <p>,where $V$ is the classical Volterra operator acting on $C[0,1]$.</p>