Oriented double normals - MathOverflow most recent 30 from http://mathoverflow.net 2013-06-19T22:13:15Z http://mathoverflow.net/feeds/question/87579 http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/rdf http://mathoverflow.net/questions/87579/oriented-double-normals Oriented double normals alvarezpaiva 2012-02-05T13:07:44Z 2012-02-05T15:49:40Z <p><em>Given an embedded two-torus in three-dimensional Euclidean space, paint the inside of the torus red and the outside blue. Show that there is an oriented line in ${\mathbb R}^3$ that cuts the torus perpendicularly in (at least) two points at which it crosses from red to blue.</em></p> <p>This is true (I'll say why in a minute), but I'd like to know if there is a simple proof using standard critical point theory.</p> <p>Here is a proof that works even if the torus is immersed:</p> <p>Consider the space of geodesics of ${\mathbb R}^3$ which is well-known to be symplectomorphic to the cotangent of the two-sphere. The congruence of oriented lines normal to the immersed torus is an immersed exact Lagrangian manifold in the space of geodesics. The <em>oriented double normal</em> we're looking for is just a double (multiple) point for this immersed Lagrangian. In other words, we would like to know that this immersion cannot be an embedding. The result now follows from a theorem of Claude Viterbo (JDG <strong>47</strong> (1997) 120-168).</p> <p><strong>Theorem (Viterbo).</strong> <em>There is no exact Lagrangian embedding of the two-torus in the cotangent space of the two sphere</em>. </p> <p>This theorem and the arguments I gave before settle the problem not only in Euclidean space, but also in hyperbolic space, three-dimensional Hadamard manifolds, three-dimensional normed spaces with smooth, quadratically-convex spheres and, in general, it works for any three-dimensional Finsler manifold whose space of geodesics is symplectomorphic to the cotangent of the two-sphere. </p> <p>Isn't there some simpler argument that works in ${\mathbb R}^n$ $(n > 3)$ and yields <strong>something</strong> like: if an compact oriented manifold is immersed as a hypersurface in ${\mathbb R}^n$, then it either admits an oriented double normal or it is homeomorphic/diffeomorphic to a sphere ?</p> <p><strong>Relation to the standard double-normal problem.</strong> In the standard (non-oriented) double-normal problem, everything reduces to considering the critical points of the distance-squared function defined on the symmetric product of the immersed manifold with itself. What I can't see is whether there is some minimax procedure that constructs critical values (and points) that correspond to oriented double normals.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/87579/oriented-double-normals/87582#87582 Answer by Liviu Nicolaescu for Oriented double normals Liviu Nicolaescu 2012-02-05T13:59:56Z 2012-02-05T13:59:56Z <p>A proof in the <strong>embedded</strong> case. </p> <p>In the embedded case the torus $T$ bounds a domain $D\subset \mathbb{R}^3$. Any unit vector $\vec{u}\in\mathbb{R}^3$ defines a linear map</p> <p>$$\mathbb{R}^3\ni x\mapsto (\vec{u},\vec{x})\in\mathbb{R}.$$</p> <p>We denote by $f_{\vec{u}}$ its restriction to the torus $T$. For generic $\vec{u}$ the function $f_{\vec{u}}$ is Morse. Thus it will have at least 4 critical points. The critical set $C(\vec{u})$ of this function can be given an alternate descritiption. Consider the Gauss map</p> <p>$$\mathcal{G}: \partial D\to S^2$$</p> <p>given by the outer normal. Then $\vec{u}\in S^2$ and</p> <p>$$C(\vec{u})= \mathcal{G}^{-1}\lbrace\vec{u}\rbrace \; \cup \; \mathcal{G}^{-1}\lbrace-\vec{u}\rbrace =: C_+(\vec{u})\cup C_-(\vec{u}) .$$</p> <p>From the Gauss-Bonnet theorem we deduce that the both sets $C_\pm(\vec{u})$ have even cardinalities. Thus, it suffices to show that they are both nonempty. Note that the minimma of $f_{\vec{u}}$ belong to $C_-(\vec{u})$ while the maxima of $f_{\vec{u}}$ belong to $C_+(\vec{u})$.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/87579/oriented-double-normals/87593#87593 Answer by Petya for Oriented double normals Petya 2012-02-05T15:32:55Z 2012-02-05T15:49:40Z <p>I suggest to look at my paper - P. E. Pushkar', “Generalization of the Chekanov Theorem. Diameters of Immersed Manifolds and Wave Fronts” Local and global problems of singularity theory, Collection of papers dedicated to the 60th anniversary of academician Vladimir Igorevich Arnold, Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklova, 221, Nauka, Moscow, 1998, 289–304 </p> <p>You can find it here - <a href="http://wenku.baidu.com/view/0514da4d852458fb770b56c6.html?from=related" rel="nofollow">http://wenku.baidu.com/view/0514da4d852458fb770b56c6.html?from=related</a></p> <p>Diameters are double normals! </p> <p>In particular, there is an estimate in the paper - number of double normals of generic immersed submanifold $M^n$ of the Euclidean space is at least $(B^2-B)/2+nB/2$. Here $B$ is $\dim H_*(M,Z_2)$. This estimation is exact for product of spheres, oriented surfaces.</p> <p>There is a proof (by Maxim Kazaryan) of my estimate for the case of embeddings, which use only square-function - <a href="http://www.mi.ras.ru/~kazarian/papers/homology05.pdf" rel="nofollow">http://www.mi.ras.ru/~kazarian/papers/homology05.pdf</a> in the section 16. Unfortunately it is in Russian. </p>