For what reductive groups $G$ over $K$ are the inner forms classified by $H^1(K, G^{ad})$? - MathOverflow most recent 30 from http://mathoverflow.net 2013-05-18T16:12:26Z http://mathoverflow.net/feeds/question/55691 http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/rdf http://mathoverflow.net/questions/55691/for-what-reductive-groups-g-over-k-are-the-inner-forms-classified-by-h1k For what reductive groups $G$ over $K$ are the inner forms classified by $H^1(K, G^{ad})$? David Roe 2011-02-17T05:11:30Z 2011-02-22T01:16:20Z <p>Suppose $G$ is a connected reductive algebraic group over an arbitrary field $K$; let $Z$ be the center of $G$. The inner automorphisms of $G$ are given by $\operatorname{Inn}(G) = G / Z = G^{\operatorname{ad}}$. Set $\operatorname{Out}(G)$ to be the quotient $\operatorname{Aut}(G) / G^{\operatorname{ad}}.$ The forms of $G$ are parameterized by $\operatorname{H}^1(K, \operatorname{Aut}(G))$, and the inner forms are those in the image of<br> $$\operatorname{H}^1(K,G^{\operatorname{ad}}) \rightarrow \operatorname{H}^1(K,\operatorname{Aut}(G))$$ So we can recast the classification of inner forms of $G$ to:</p> <blockquote> <p>What conditions can we put on $G$ to guarantee that the map $$\operatorname{H}^0(K,\operatorname{Aut}(G)) \rightarrow \operatorname{H}^0(K,\operatorname{Out}(G))$$ is surjective? </p> </blockquote> <p>I'm primarily interested in the connected reductive case here, but I would be curious about the more general case as well.</p> <p>On a related note, I've frequently seen the claim that for quasisimple $G$, the group $\operatorname{Out}(G)$ is given by the automorphism group of the Dynkin diagram of $G$. This holds for some reductive $G$ (such as $\operatorname{GL}_n$) and not others (most nontrivial tori will have a nontrivial outer automorphism group and a trivial dynkin diagram).</p> <blockquote> <p>How can we extend the description of $\operatorname{Out}(G)$ from the case of quasi-simple $G$ to connected reductive $G$?</p> </blockquote> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/55691/for-what-reductive-groups-g-over-k-are-the-inner-forms-classified-by-h1k/56211#56211 Answer by Victor Petrov for For what reductive groups $G$ over $K$ are the inner forms classified by $H^1(K, G^{ad})$? Victor Petrov 2011-02-21T19:58:40Z 2011-02-21T19:58:40Z <p>Split redictive groups are classified by a combinatorial structure called root datum. If your $G$ is split, the outer automorphism group is the constant group scheme of automorphisms of this structure preserving simple roots. If $G$ is semisimple simply connected or adjoint it is indeed just the automorphism group of the Dynkin diagram, but in the other semisimple cases it can be a proper subgroup of the latter; for general reductive groups it is finitely generated but not always finite. If $G$ is not split, you can get a twisted form of this constant scheme. SGA 3 Exp. XXIV may help.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/55691/for-what-reductive-groups-g-over-k-are-the-inner-forms-classified-by-h1k/56234#56234 Answer by Skip for For what reductive groups $G$ over $K$ are the inner forms classified by $H^1(K, G^{ad})$? Skip 2011-02-22T01:16:20Z 2011-02-22T01:16:20Z <p>I want to address your first question, regarding what conditions you can put on $G$ to guarantee that the map $Aut(G)(K) \rightarrow Out(G)(K)$ is surjective. I am only going to talk about the case where is $G$ semisimple. If $G$ is quasi-split, then the map has a section so it is surjective, as you can see from the references given by fherzig or Victor.</p> <p>But if $G$ is not quasi-split, there can be obstructions coming from both the Tits index and Tits algebras. One example to consider is $G = Spin(6,2)$ (of type $D_4$) over the real numbers. In that case $Out(G)(K)$ is the symmetric group on 3 letters, but the image of your map has order 2, corresponding to the outer automorphism given by a hyperplane reflection.</p> <p>If $G$ is absolutely simple, you can hope that the Tits algebras provide the only obstruction to the surjectivity of your map. But this seems to be open. For more details on these obstructions and some positive results (that in some cases the Tits algebras are the only obstruction), see section 2 of my recent paper <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.1298" rel="nofollow">`Outer automorphisms...'</a>.</p>