Isomorphism of the function field of the projective line with $\mathbf{C}(s)$ - MathOverflow most recent 30 from http://mathoverflow.net 2013-05-24T10:57:34Z http://mathoverflow.net/feeds/question/53292 http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/rdf http://mathoverflow.net/questions/53292/isomorphism-of-the-function-field-of-the-projective-line-with-mathbfcs Isomorphism of the function field of the projective line with $\mathbf{C}(s)$ Philoi 2011-01-25T23:11:30Z 2011-01-26T17:10:06Z <p>Suppose I chose two rational functions, say,</p> <p>$$u = \frac{t(4+t)^5}{(1+4t)^5}, \qquad v = \frac{t^5(4+t)}{(1+4t)}.$$</p> <p>Then I know that $K(X) = \mathbf{C}(u,v)$ is the function field of the projective line (Proof: If $K(Y) = \mathbf{C}(t)$, then there is an inclusion $K(X) \subseteq K(Y)$ and hence a surjection $\mathbf{P}^1 \simeq Y \rightarrow X$, and so $X$ must have genus $0$). From this it follows that $K(X) \simeq \mathbf{C}(s)$ for some $s \in \mathbf{C}(t)$.</p> <p>Is there a practical easy algorithm to explicity construct such an $s$ and, moreover, write $s$ as a rational function of $u$ and $v$? Is there an easy way at least to determine the degree of the map $Y \rightarrow X$? (EDIT: There's some ambiguity here: I mean $X$ and $Y$ to be the unique <em>smooth</em> curves (i.e. $\mathbf{P}^1$) with function fields $K(X)$ and $K(Y)$).</p> <p>In case you were wondering, the specific choice of $u$ and $v$ where motivated by the question:</p> <p><a href="http://mathoverflow.net/questions/50804/deciding-whether-a-given-power-series-is-modular-or-not" rel="nofollow">http://mathoverflow.net/questions/50804/deciding-whether-a-given-power-series-is-modular-or-not</a></p> <p>(This question was posted on math.stackexchange a week ago; I am cross posting it here because it did not receive any replies: <a href="http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/17960/function-field-of-the-projective-line" rel="nofollow">http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/17960/function-field-of-the-projective-line</a>)</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/53292/isomorphism-of-the-function-field-of-the-projective-line-with-mathbfcs/53307#53307 Answer by Joe Silverman for Isomorphism of the function field of the projective line with $\mathbf{C}(s)$ Joe Silverman 2011-01-26T01:13:55Z 2011-01-26T03:26:43Z <p>Dan's right, the inclusion $K(Y)\subset K(X)$ would give a map $X\to Y$. However, I think you meant to write $K(X)\subset K(Y)$, which is easier to see is the correct formulation if you write it as $K(u,v)\subset K(t)$. Also, you meant to say $s$ as a rational function of $u$ and $v$, not of $X$ and $Y$.</p> <p>You can get an equation (probably singular) for $X$ by computing the resultant of $(1+4t)^5u-t(4+t)^5$ and $(1+4t)v-t^5(4+t)$ with respect to the variable $t$. This gives an equation in $u$ and $v$. After dividing by a common factor, I get that $X$ is given by the following rather horrible affine equation in the $(u,v)$-plane: \eqalign{ -u^6 &amp;+ (281474976710656 v^5 - 24739011624960 v^4 + 685517045760 v^3 \cr &amp;- 6305218560 v^2 + 11887110 v) u^5 + (-24739011624960 v^5\cr &amp;+ 301150356111360 v^4 - 292164004085760 v^3 - 7564564531215 v^2\cr &amp;- 6305218560 v) u^4 + (685517045760 v^5 - 292164004085760 v^4 \cr &amp;+ 114773655178260 v^3 - 292164004085760 v^2 + 685517045760 v) u^3 \cr &amp;+ (-6305218560 v^5 - 7564564531215 v^4 - 292164004085760 v^3 \cr &amp;+ 301150356111360 v^2 - 24739011624960 v) u^2 + (11887110 v^5 \cr &amp;- 6305218560 v^4 + 685517045760 v^3 - 24739011624960 v^2 \cr &amp;+ 281474976710656 v) u - v^6 = 0. } Then $t\to(u(t),v(t))$ gives the map from $\mathbb{P}^1=Y$ to $X$. Someone who is more adept than I am using computer algebra systems can probably figure out the degree of this map, and write $k(u(t),v(t))$ as $k(s(u(t),v(t)))$ for an explicit $s(u,v)$.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/53292/isomorphism-of-the-function-field-of-the-projective-line-with-mathbfcs/53339#53339 Answer by inkspot for Isomorphism of the function field of the projective line with $\mathbf{C}(s)$ inkspot 2011-01-26T09:29:05Z 2011-01-26T09:29:05Z <p>In the specific example, $k(u)\subset k(u,v)\subset k(t)$ and the degree $[k(t):k(u)]=6$. Joe Silverman's equation shows that $[k(u,v):k(u)]=6$, so $k(u,v)=k(t)$ and you can take $s=t$.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/53292/isomorphism-of-the-function-field-of-the-projective-line-with-mathbfcs/53376#53376 Answer by james-parson for Isomorphism of the function field of the projective line with $\mathbf{C}(s)$ james-parson 2011-01-26T17:10:06Z 2011-01-26T17:10:06Z <p>The usual algebraic proof of L\"uroth's theorem gives the following procedure for finding a single generator of the subfield $L= K(u_1,\dotsc,u_r)$ of $K(t)$: let $a$ be any non-constant coefficient of the minimal monic polynomial of $t$ over $L$. Then $K(a) = L$.</p> <p>Perhaps one can concoct a fast algorithm to compute these sorts of things using linear algebra. A lazy-person's way to do it would be to use Groebner bases. For example, in the case in question, consider the ring $R = \mathbf{C}[s,t,u,v]$ equipped with the lexicographic order where s>t>u>v. (Funny to call that "lexicographic.") Let $J$ be the ideal $$(s(1+4t)-1, u - t(4+t)^5s^5, v-t^5(4+t)s)$$ of $R$. If you compute a reduced Groebner basis for $J$, you will find elements of degrees (in the order $(s,t,u,v)$) $$(1,1,5,23), (0,2,5,23), (0,1,5,23), (0,1,5,24), (0,0,6,6),$$ whose coefficients are too enormous for me to include here. (Despite the enormous coefficients, the calculation took only a fraction of a second on my run-of-the-mill laptop.) The element of degree $(0,0,6,6)$ is the relation between $u$ and $v$ that Joe Silverman calculated using resolvents. Each of the third and fourth elements provides a way to write $t$ as a rational function of $u$ and $v$.</p> <p>In the general setting (of $L=K(u_1,\dotsc,u_r)$ in $K(t)$), if you perform a similar Groebner-basis calculation, you will find the minimal polynomial (but not in monic form) of $t$ over your subfield $L$ among the elements of your Groebner basis. Dividing that relation by the coefficient of the highest power of $t$, you get the minimal monic polynomial of $t$ over $L$. Take a non-constant coefficient $a$ of this monic polynomial, and you will have $K(a) = L$. A similar Groebner-basis calculation will provide expressions for the $u_i$ in terms of $a$. Thoughtful examination of the proof of L\"uroth's theorem may allow one to speed up the calculation (and to state things in a less roundabout way). To see how this goes in practice, you could try the simple case $u=t^4, v=t^6$.</p>