Non-absolute convergence of series with asymtotically equal coefficients - MathOverflow most recent 30 from http://mathoverflow.net 2013-05-24T05:51:28Z http://mathoverflow.net/feeds/question/24497 http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/rdf http://mathoverflow.net/questions/24497/non-absolute-convergence-of-series-with-asymtotically-equal-coefficients Non-absolute convergence of series with asymtotically equal coefficients wood 2010-05-13T12:41:43Z 2010-05-25T18:35:21Z <p>The following seems to be a question related to standard calculus, but I am not quite sure where to look for an answer.</p> <p>Suppose $f,g:\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{C}$ are such that the have the same asymptotical behaviour, i.e. $f(n)/g(n) \to 1$ as $n \to \infty$. Of course, suppose that one of the sums $\sum_{n=0}^\infty f(n)$ and $\sum_{n=0}^\infty g(n)$ converges absolutely, then so does the other. This can be proven by a standard estimate. However this standard estimate fails if we do not have absolute convergence. I do not see how to prove convergence of one of sums implies the convergence of the other. I feel that it may be actually false.</p> <p>So the first question is:</p> <blockquote> <p>$1$. Is it true that one series converges iff the other does?</p> </blockquote> <p>If this is not the case, however, in the problem I am studying, I want to prove convergence for both series. For my application in mind, you may assume that $f(n)/g(n)$ is always in $\mathbb{R}$. So the second question is </p> <blockquote> <p>$2$. Under which additional conditions (which do not! imply absolute convergence) can we deduce both series have the same behaviour. Are there books treating such topics?</p> </blockquote> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/24497/non-absolute-convergence-of-series-with-asymtotically-equal-coefficients/24502#24502 Answer by Xandi Tuni for Non-absolute convergence of series with asymtotically equal coefficients Xandi Tuni 2010-05-13T13:10:04Z 2010-05-13T13:16:40Z <p>What about this: Take $f(n) = (-1)^n\log(n)^{-1}$ and $g(n)=f(n)+n^{-1}$. The sum of the $f(n)$'s is converging (it is "telescopic") and very far from absloutely converging. The sum of $g(n)$'s diverges to $+\infty$. Finally we have</p> <p>$$f(n)/g(n) = \frac{1}{1 + (-1)^n\log(n)n^{-1}}$$</p> <p>which goes to 1 as $n$ goes to infinity. So that means "no" for your first question.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/24497/non-absolute-convergence-of-series-with-asymtotically-equal-coefficients/24536#24536 Answer by Julián Aguirre for Non-absolute convergence of series with asymtotically equal coefficients Julián Aguirre 2010-05-13T19:28:52Z 2010-05-13T19:28:52Z <p>This is a different example than the one given by Xandi Tuni. Let $a_n$ be any nondecreasing sequence of real numbers such that $a_1>1$ and $\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=\infty$, and let $f(n)=(-1)^n/a_n$. Then $\sum f(n)$ converges by Leibniz's criterion. Now define $$g(n)=\frac{(-1)^n}{a_n+(-1)^n} \implies \lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{f(n)}{g(n)}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{a_n+(-1)^n}{a_n}=1.$$ Then $$g(n)=f(n)-\frac{1}{a_n(a_n+(-1)^n)},$$</p> <p>so that $\sum g(n)$ converges if and only if $\sum\frac{1}{a_n^2}$ does.</p> http://mathoverflow.net/questions/24497/non-absolute-convergence-of-series-with-asymtotically-equal-coefficients/24595#24595 Answer by Emerton for Non-absolute convergence of series with asymtotically equal coefficients Emerton 2010-05-14T07:57:19Z 2010-05-25T18:35:21Z <p>Following Theo Johnson--Freyd's suggestion, I am making my above comment an answer:</p> <p>Just subtracting one series from the other, it seems that you need $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (f(n)−g(n))$ to converge. Writing $$f(n)/g(n)=1+\delta_n,$$ $$\text{so that } \qquad \qquad\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (f(n)−g(n))=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \delta_n g(n),$$ you see need control over the signs of the $\delta_n$, or (as Theo notes in his comment, on their rate of growth).</p> <p>E.g. if they are all of the same sign, you are okay, while if the sign of $\delta_n$ is always the same as, or always opposite to, that of $\delta_n$, then you could be in bad shape. (This is what goes wrong in Xandi Tuni's example.) </p> <p>As Theo notes in his comment, you are also okay if $\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} \delta_n$ converges absolutely. Whether this applies in your case will depend on how closely $f$ and $g$ approximate one another. (This is illustrated by the example in Julian Aguirre's answer.)</p>